The development of the media over the past two centuries was directly related to the progression of printing and communication technology. States, parties and numerous parties use the media as a means of exchanging messages and propaganda in many countries and places; this brought the media to a fourth power that dominated other powers. From this perspective, policymaking for the media in order to fulfill its duties has been classified into various categories. According to (Dennis McCowell), a well-known media expert, this policymaking went through three stages: –
First Stage: Policymaking of the communications industry, which began before World War II (1945).
Second Stage: Public service policymaking (1945-1980).
Third Stage: Modern policymaking (1980s) to the present.
According to him; in the first phase, the media policy was to convey its messages through telegrams and wireless telephones, trying to protect the interests of states, private companies and businesses. At the same time, the reflection of war and politics in the media played a major role during World War II. In the second phase, which began after the war ended, media policy carried messages of social consciousness and intense political conflict and lasted until the end of the Cold War. The third phase, which began in the 1980s and emerged in the 1990s, media policy developed within social, economic and technological processes. Its aim carried a message of democracy and modernity, while at the same time a fierce conflict between the interests of states and the private sector.
Despite the positive aspects of the development of the media, which has been the subject of much research, a small number of experts have identified methods and policies for media that have a negative impact on the human disorder.
Concepts and Definitions
Yellow mass media is used today as a pejorative to decry any journalism that treats news in an unprofessional or unethical fashion (Biagi, 2011, P56). According to another expert, it refers to newspapers that devote several front page headlines to various topics such as sports and shameful topics.
- Joseph Campbell describes yellow press newspapers as having daily multi-column front-page headlines covering a variety of topics, such as sports and scandal, using bold layouts (with large illustrations and perhaps color), heavy reliance on unnamed sources, and unabashed self-promotion. The term was extensively used to describe certain major New York City newspapers around 1900 as they battled for circulation.
History of its appearance
Yellow Journalism dates back to the publication of “The Sun” in (1883). This newspaper, which operated under the name of “popular and independent”, was ready to publish any exciting news and articles, especially about crime. To achieve a number of goals:-
- Gain reputation at the national level.
- Increase its circulation, even at the expense of misleading the reader and distorting the facts.
- Supporting the newspaper’s staff and journalists through its earning incomes.
There are three vital factors for the emergence and development of this sneaky media phenomenon:
First, some of those who select a profession of journalism have not received scientific and legal courses on the media.
Second, the journalists, pages and accounts purposely ignore the legal provisions.
Third, the prosecuting attorney general’s negligence in holding accountable the owners of pages and accounts that live on the provocation and magnification of stealthy phenomena. For example, there are pages with all the articles like this: How did a brother have sex with his sister-in-law? How does a girl steal her husband and have a relationship with men? I would ask the prosecutor general and the responsible parties, these issues are not the basis for the lack of trust among the sections of society? Doesn’t your silence increase this stealthy phenomenon?
The most important measures of treatment of yellow media are:-
– Advice and guidance to journalists to avoid publishing false articles and raising issues that tarnish the morality of society.
– Activate the prosecutor’s office to file complaints and hold accountable the masked pages and accounts that have collected hundreds of thousands of likes on the yellow article.
– Raising awareness among the public, especially young people, to avoid watching inappropriate videos and articles.