Election System, Its Effects on Political Stability

The subject of democratizing the political system and transformation from undemocratic to democratic governments, triumph in this transformation process relates to some political, social, economy and law measurements
AM:12:07:21/10/2018
Election System, Its Effects on Political Stability

Academic Board of the Center
Academic Board of the Center



The subject of democratizing the political system and transformation from undemocratic to democratic governments, triumph in this transformation process relates to some political, social, economy and law measurements. This study examines the elections’ system and its impact on victory of the political process, meanwhile, the study states the analyzing election process, the Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) has taken as an example, and it investigates on some relevant subjects particularly:

 Are the election schemes in KRG suit with democratizing needs and the regions’ governing experience?

 What types of election system (open, close) have advantages into the KRG’s experience?

What is the best solution to equalize political certainty with the election system in KRG (close, open, semi open).

The values of this text belong to subjective analyzing for election experience and it’s effective in the region political stability during the last twenty seven years ago. The main hypotheses of the text depend on "political stability is not become election product if it is not the reflect to the society”

Two main topics, concentrate on which are:

The first topic: election’s system, and political stability.

This is probably demonstrated on doing the election process. The election system means the process that voter’s votes have been changed to a candidates’ seat. This does not mean the election process is simple, contrary, it is a process that has diverse factors for its results. Is it plurality or percentages result’s election? Or it is a combination of both? Does the voter indicate only a nominee or votes for a list includes several nominees?

The rights of voters in the election process has been divided into three main types, this is in a public election, particularly in the percentage system which are: closed list, opened list, and free list.

Closed list is a type of election that the voter’s duty is just select the party’s name. In this type the voter is not voting for candidates.

Opened list: in this type, the voter has rights to vote for parliament chairs. The voters directly choose the one who wants to be his/her representative in the parliament.

Free list: this is defiantly contrast with the first type. In this type, the nominee have been selected without depending on the political party’s list.

Political stability:

Political stability is one of the complex and hidden theory in political matters. Political stability in one area will affect another area. The important point to know is the political stability has not reached through using force, but the significant matter for achieving is the peaceful transformation of authority from a hand to another.

There are several measurements to evaluate the political stability, which are:

Transform the political power from one hand to another hand.

Complete the democratic system and supportable of political participation.

Protecting the society, and sovereignty of the country.

The state would be far away from violence and interior wars and separation movements.

Unity of society and political culture.

Spread of the soul of patriotism among individuals.


The second topic: the KRG elections’ experience.

The KRG’s first seat of parliament was held on May 19, 1992, the last on Sep 31, 2018. This study examined the election system and its impacts on political stability in the region. The study more precisely emphasized on the experience of the Kurdistan region and the role of parliament.

Firstly, when the closed list system had been applied on the region, it could not get success in the political stability of the region because the candidates had been selected by the political parties. The voters had not a direct contact with the nominees, in contrast the political parties decided whom to be a parliament member. Another reason that this system failed in Kurdistan was that (7%) in front of political parties.

Second, opened list election system sent many new Parliament Member (PM) in all the types of the people. This step had different advantages in the political stability of the region, but in the same it was a factor for being a PM for many whom had not any political experiences. This had two reasons: first these PM were the remains of the political parties and on another side, it caused of depended on the territories and tribes in indicating the PM. Additionally, this had own effects in the parliament.

Finally, regards to the above mentioned points, there is no doubt that the open list is the best option. But with a condition of a suitable measurement to pass for being a PM. One of the measurements is indicating the reaching votes for the candidates and divide Kurdistan on various election circles which now only one circle present.



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